Increasing the price of petrol is the best way to solve growing traffic and. In this essay, some other possible solutions will be elaborated. One of my recent essays discussed the relationship between high oil prices and recession. Consumers who suddenly find themselves paying more for fuel are hit with the equivalent of a stealth tax, leaving less money available to fuel domestic growth through purchases or investments. LeadingWare Group, Inc Oceanic 14 oz. Plastic Drinking Glass Set of 4Thus, unsurprisingly, there is a strong historical link between escalating oil prices and economic recessions. But despite the financial pain (in fact, because of it) there is a major upside to higher oil prices. Consumers do respond to the price signal, and this response can provide some protection against further price spikes. In this essay, I point out how we can mitigate against the effects of sudden price spikes, advocating for a better price signal in conjunction with long-term planning in order to allow consumers to prepare themselves in advance. As they did during the oil price spike of 2008, consumers Lenox Butterfly Meadow HARVEST 12 Pc Dinnerware Set RARE New in Boxare once more demonstrating a response to higher oil prices. First, they simply cut back on driving: Drivers start to cut back on gas as prices rise People are still taking a hit, even as they conserve gas. That’s because gas prices are going up faster than people are cutting back. Gas is 32 percent more expensive than it was in April 2010. In all, Americans are paying roughly $340 million more per day to fill up than they did a year ago. In addition to cutting back on fuel purchases, consumers also start looking at more fuel-efficient vehicles. Demand for hybrid and electric cars is higher than ever, but demand for diesels — long popular in Europe due to favorable taxes on diesel fuel — is gaining steam in the U. With gas prices approaching $4 a gallon in many states, drivers are inquiring about fuel-efficient options that go beyond hybrid vehicles and public transportation. More so than in 2008, drivers are ready to get behind the wheel of diesel vehicles, which in some cases are more costly but also offer more miles per gallon. Popular car leasing website Lease says search demand and lease takeovers are up for several diesel models compared with activity from 2008. With gasoline approaching, and in some areas surpassing $4 a gallon, Ford is reporting high interest in its natural gas-powered vehicles. The company currently offers its E-Series fullsize vans, Super Duty trucks, and Transit Connect compact vans with a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) option. energy policy is that it is based on delivering energy to consumers at the lowest possible cost. These are all developments that will ultimately slow U. demand for petroleum, but economic havocLina Cavali Design Fornasetti Coffee Pot Milk Pot Sugar Pot Individual Selection can ensue while we wait for these developments to evolve. This sort of thinking is flawed, and it leaves us ever more vulnerable, and less-prepared as a nation for higher oil prices. This is the reason I favor a more proactive approach to managing fuel prices. When they rise sharply, consumers are unprepared and they are suddenly hit with unexpected pressure on their budgets. If they knew the price increases were coming, they could better prepare themselves instead of listening to pandering politicians continue to promise a return to happier times of $1 gasoline by engaging in wishful thinking. By implementing the idea Lenox Butterfly Meadow orange Sulphur Dinner Plate, Set of 4, NIB, Free Shippingof trading higher gas taxes for lower income taxes, 1). Consumers would know the increases are coming and could plan accordingly; and 2). More of the money generated by that price increase would stay within the U. With oil having risen in price by an order of magnitude over the past decade, I believe the days of ‘cheap’ oil are behind us. Yet instead of responding with proactive long-term planning, we try to cling to the past with silly schemes like tapping the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to ease prices for consumers. Or, we engage in military action to make sure the oil keeps flowing. In response to high prices, our political leaders engage in magical thinking, and they look for scapegoats. One side will claim that oil prices are only high because we haven’t developed our resources to the fullest extent. The other side will claim that they are high becauseLOT DE 7 PELLES - METAL silverE - 955 GRS - MA 11 14 of our failure to invest enough money into alternative energy. The first view is wrong because global demand for petroleum is large and growing, and we can’t add enough to the mix to significantly impact global oil prices. That isn’t to advocate leaving our resources untouched, it is simply an observation that developing our resources isn’t going to return us to the days of $2 gasoline. The second view is flawed because it is simply more expensive to produce renewable energy. This is almost universally true, which is why so much intervention is required to increase the renewable energy share in our energy portfolio. So I don’t believe cheap renewable energy is going to replace expensive fossil fuels. I actually think that expensive renewable energy ultimately replaces much more expensive fossil fuels (albeit at a lower level of consumption than today’s). People often ask me at what price point I believe various renewables will be competitive. I think those price points are farther off than most people think. Consider that in Germany today gasoline sells for $8.35 a gallon. First, people will continue to drive at much higher prices than we are paying today. They will just continue to make difficult adjustments and that will continue to take its toll on economic growth. But the more important indicator to me is that renewable energy has not ridden to the rescue in Germany at that price point. Electric cars haven’t filled the autobahns, nor have E85 or biodiesel-fueled vehicles. That day may come, but once again the response is slow and thoseHubby & Wifey Jumbo Coffee Mug (Set of 2) prices take their toll on consumers in the interim. On the other hand, those high prices have long influenced decisions in Europe around energy consumption. Indeed, it works more effectively than anything else at getting consumers to change behaviors. Europeans have opted for more fuel efficient cars, mass transit, and shorter commutes to work, and as a result European per capita consumption is about half that of the U. While consumers do respond to price hikes on fuel, the response lags, often because of a belief that prices will fall back to historical levels. Pandering politicians don’t help mattersLenox Casual Radiance Cup and Saucer Set by suggesting that prices are high for reasons other than supply and demand. By doing so, many consumers are left with the belief that just as soon as our lawmakers get their hands on those speculators and oil companies fixing prices, or the environmentalists blocking development — they can continue to consume like it was still 1999.
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This band 8 IELTS essay sample was submitted by one of our students. Send us your writing samples for a free band score estimate or get a. Although fuel prices continue to hit record highs, you can take action to maximize fuel efficiency, save energy, and take steps to conserve fuel in commercial fleet vehicles. We spoke to fleet operators and gathered 15 suggestions for better fuel economy and best practices that you can implement in your fleet right away. The worst mileage a vehicle can get is zero mpg, which occurs when it idles. Idling for long periods of time, whether at a railroad crossing or pulling off the road to make a cell phone call, consumes gas that could be saved by simply turning off the engine. Restarting an engine uses about the same amount of gas as idling for 30 seconds. When idling for longer periods of time, shut off the engine. Intbuying 10-Pan Bain Maire Buffet Steam Table Food Warmer Kitchen Stainless StHowever, turning off the engine may disable vehicle functions, including safety features like airbags. Drivers should be certain to only utilize this strategy in situations where there is no possibility of collision. Vehicles get much better mileage when they’re not loaded with unnecessary weight. Every 200 pounds of additional weight trims one mile off fuel efficiency. Most drivers accumulate material in their vehicle trunks, some of it unnecessary. Instruct drivers to remove all non-required items from the vehicle, such as unneeded tools or materials.Lenox CORAL BLOSSOMS TEMPER WARE 9 Oval Serving Vegetable Bowl Excellent Buy tire gauges for your drivers so they can ensure tires are inflated to the manufacturer’s recommended level. One underinflated tire can cut fuel economy by 2% per pound of pressure below the proper inflation level. One out of four drivers, on average, drives vehicles with one or more underinflated tires. When a tire is underinflated by 4-5 psi below the manufacturer’s recommended tire pressure, for example, vehicle fuel consumption increases by 10% and, over the long haul, causes a 15% reduction in tire tread life. Check the vehicle’s doorpost sticker for minimum tire inflation pressure. Resist the urge to buy higher-octane gas for “premium” performance, unless the vehicle requires it. Octane has nothing to do with gasoline performance; it merely indicates the volatility factor in the combustion chamber. Unless your vehicle owner’s manual specifically requires it, don’t use premium fuel. Fuel costs could be cut as much as 10 cents per gallon by using regular fuel instead of premium. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates a 10% to 15% improvement in fuel economy by driving 55 mph instead of 65 mph. Gas is a network of more than 179 city-specific Web sites with gas price information posted by users. Browse this site on a Black Berry orLenox Entertain 365 Sculpture Rectangular Baker with Lid, White other PDA to find cheap gas on-the-go. Does your company have a business membership to a warehouse chain such as Costco, Sam’s Club, or BJ’s Wholesale Club? These wholesale clubs typically offer some of the lowest gas prices in town. The downsides are that you may find lines at the pumps and the cost of membership (typically $40 to $45) will offset some of your savings if all you do is buy gas. Yet, if you shop at one of these anyway, or you’re a heavy gas user, you may still find the savings worthwhile. Discount retailers,JoyJolt Meille Champagne Glasses, Lead-Free Crystal Set of 2 8.2 Ounce Flutes for example, Wal-Mart and Kmart, and grocery stores that have pumps also often charge less than the competition to get people on their lots. In addition, there’s no membership fee required at the discount retailers. Similar to turning off the lights in unoccupied rooms at home, drivers should practice energy conservation habits in their vehicles as well. If a vehicle has a trip computer, encourage drivers to use the “instant fuel economy” display to refine driving habits. The air conditioner puts extra load on the engine, forcing more fuel to be used. An air conditioner is one of the biggest drains on engine power and fuel economy. It can reduce gas consumption 5 to 20 percent, depending on the type of vehicle and the way it is driven. If it’s just too hot to bear without A/C, keep it set around 72 degrees. In addition, parking in the shade increases fuel economy since not as much gas will evaporate when the car is out of the sun. Air conditioning won’t need to work as hard to cool down the interior. Wind drag is a key source of reduced fuel mileage, causing an engine to work harder, thereby reducing fuel economy. Minimize wind drag by keeping the windows rolled up. This allows air to flow over the body, rather then drawing it inside the cabin and slowing down the vehicle. A wide-open window, especially at highway speeds, increases aerodynamic drag, which could result in a 10-percent decrease in fuel economy. If you want fresh air, run the climate system on “outside air” and “vent,” and crack the window for additional ventilation. Lowering the tailgate of a pickup creates turbulence, causing wind drag and a less fuel-efficient truck at highway speeds. By leaving the tailgate up, a smooth bubble of air is created in the bed. Possible incentives include reduced-cost or free parking, preferred parking, or reward programs such as prize drawings. Employers can help employees form carpools through rideshare organizations, which help potential carpoolers locate others nearby with similar schedules. If you have several employees going to the same work location or job site, have them take one vehicle instead of driving separately. Anticipate traffic conditions and accelerate and decelerate smoothly —Lenox Federal gold Monogram 9 Dessert Plate - Script L - NEW it’s safer, uses less gas, and reduces brake wear. In stop-and-go commuter traffic, look two or more vehicles ahead as you keep an eye on the driver in front of you. This enables you to accelerate and decelerate more gradually. By anticipating a traffic light change, an upcoming stop sign, or the need to slow down for a curve, you can avoid or reduce brake use and save gasoline in the process. Like the “jackrabbit start,” the “jackrabbit stop” is also a major contributor to inefficient driving. When climbing a hill, the engine is already working hard to overcome gravity. Pushing it harder by stepping on the gas is simply a waste of fuel. The use of cruise control helps improve fuel economy. Time studies show that fast starts, weaving in and out of traffic, and accelerating to and from a stop light don’t save much time and wear out components such as brakes and tires faster. Simply limiting quick acceleration and fast braking can increase fuel economy. When accelerating, pretend you have a fresh egg underneath your right foot. A light, steady pressure helps to minimize the amount of fuel consumed and maintain a more moderate and steady speed. By not driving aggressively, drivers can save up to 20% in fuel economy, advises the EPA. Proper maintenance increases a vehicle’s fuel economy. For example, unaligned wheels that fight each other waste fuel. A dirty filter clogs an engine’s air supply, causing a higher fuel-to-air ratio and thereby increasing gasoline consumption. Use good quality, energy-conserving (EC) Katie Alice Festival Folk Verre Verre greenoils with a viscosity grade consistent with the manual. Look for bottles marked with the symbol ECII, which is the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) logo for fuel-efficient oils. A recent bill proposed by California State Senator Nancy Skinner (D-Berkeley) lays out an even more aggressive plan for emissions reduction in the state and puts the transportation sector squarely in its crosshairs. The average fuel efficiency of light-duty cars, trucks, and SUVs reached 24.9 miles per gallon for the 2017 model year, which is a record high, even as the industry may have trouble meeting future standards, according to the EPA. The national average price of regular unleaded gasoline increased 3 cents to $2.42 in the past year, and is now 20 cents higher than the start of the year, which is the largest January-February increase in four years, according to AAA.
As a result of this, oil importing countries needs more energy to run their local economy. The cost of production has risen because of the increase in fuel prices. The sharp increase in the price of petrol and diesel since June 16, when ‘dynamic’ daily pricing for these fuels was introduced, has caused much angst, forcing an explanation out of the Oil Minister on Wednesday. The price of petrol sold by Indian Oil in Delhi has gone up fromKPM Urbino, Azucarero whiteo Grande, Diseño Trude Petri, Nuevo ₹65.48 on June 16 to ₹70.38 a litre on September 13 – an increase of 7.5 per cent. The price of diesel in Delhi has gone up from ₹54.49 a litre on June 16 to ₹58.72 – an increase of 7.8 per cent. Is the price increase justified or are the oil marketing companies using the too-little-to-be-observed daily price changes to line their pockets? Between June 16 and September 13, the cost of crude oil (Indian basket) has risen nearly 10 per cent – from about $48.4 a barrel to Lenox Firelight Signature 14 oz. Crystal All Purpose Wine Glass$53 a barrel. In rupee terms, the cost of the Indian crude oil basket has risen a lower 9 per cent; this is thanks to the 0.5 per cent appreciation of the rupee from 64.4 a dollar on June 16 to 64.1 a dollar on September 13. So, going by this, the price increase in petrol and diesel has been lower than the price increase in crude oil. That’s because the price of petrol and diesel in the country are not determined by the actual costs incurred on crude oil sourcing, refining and marketing. Parity prices Rather, a formula — trade parity price (TPP) — is the starting point for pricing these products. TPP is the weighted average of import parity price (IPP) and export parity price (EPP) with weights of 80 and 20 respectively. IPP is the price importers would pay in case of actual import of the product at Indian ports, while EPP is the price oil companies would realise on export of the product. In short, the pricing assumes that Laura Ashley Freshford Cranberry Poppy Table Runner 60 x 11.5 Fully Lined.New 80 per cent of the petrol and diesel is imported and 20 per cent is exported. The IPP includes costs such as free-on-board price, ocean freight, insurance, customs duties and port dues. EPP that accounts for the assumed 20 per cent exports considers free-on-board price. Essentially, the TPP is determined based on prices for these products prevailing in the international market. The TPP which is quoted in dollars is converted to rupees. To this is added the cost of inland freight, marketing costs and margins charged by the oil companies, the dealer commission and finally the heavy taxes levied by the Central and State governments. Rupee vs dollar On June 16, the TPP of petrol was $60.87 a barrel and this went up to $65.48 a barrel on September 13 – that’s an increase of 7.6 per cent. The rupee appreciated about 0.5 per cent in this period, and taxes, while high, remain unchanged – excise duty remained at ₹21.48 a litre of petrol while value added tax (VAT) in Delhi stayed at 27 per cent. Not so transparent One, the dynamic daily pricing is not quite the transparent mechanism it is claimed to be. From June 16 to June 30, the TPP of petrol remained at $60.87 a barrel and the rupee traded the same at 64.42 a dollar, as per Indian Oil price build-up calculations. In short, the 7.5 per cent rise in the price of petrol in Delhi between June 16 and September 13 is almostLenox French Perle Bead Square 4 Piece Place Setting White the same as the 7.6 per cent rise in the product’s TPP during this period. Likewise, for the entire month of July, the TPP of petrol was $56.27 a barrel and the rupee was at 64.46 a dollar. For half of August, the TPP was $60.11 a barrel while for the other half, it was at $64.62 a barrel. And in September so far, the TPP is $65.48 a barrel. When the pricing is being done daily, how is it that the TPP and the value of the rupee, and by extension the refinery transfer price, remain constant for extended periods? Rather than showing the daily changes in the TPP and the rupee values, the oil companies are adjusting price differences in the daily prices charged to dealers. This gives the impression that the amount is going unfairly into the oil companies’ coffers. The oil companies will doLekue Microondas Pasta Cocina 1.5L Bol Rápido Fácil Saludable Nuevo en Caja well to be show the correct TPP and the rupee values to dispel doubts.
Some people suggest that to deter these problems, government should increase the petrol prices. As for as i am concerned,LOT OF 5 Red Cabbage Lettuce Leaf Salad 6 Bowls & 1 LARGE 11-1 2 SERVING BOWL i am not on the. Petrol prices will rise by 10p a gallon within a fortnight as oil producers cut supplies to the West, it emerged yesterday. The increase - equivalent to around 2p a litre - will follow a drop in production of 1.5million barrels a day which is set to be announced today. The move to boost profits by the petroleum-rich Arab nations will drive up the price of crude oil which will then hit prices at the pumps. Forecourt prices are expected to increase from around 69p per litre (£3.14 a gallon) to aboutLenox Geodesia bluee 60Pc Set, Service for 12 71p a litre (£3.24 a gallon). Oil supplies will be cut from January 1 and the reduction could last for over six months. News of the move, which ends an international price war, made oil prices leap through the psychological $20 a barrel barrier after falling to under $18 a barrel after the September 11 attacks. Shares in BP and Shell also rose as dealers predicted they would reap higher profits. Ray Holloway, of the Petrol Retailers Association said: 'Cutting back on oil production makes the markets jump, so prices go up. We are probably looking at a rise of around 1p to 2p a litre at the pumps. 'It is likely to hit at the end of the first week in January. 'Supermarkets have led the push for low prices but they may be forced to raise their prices if they have to pay more for their fuel.' He said pump prices in many areas were around 69p Hutschenreuther Medley Alfabia Finca Sous-Assiette 30,5 Cmper litre, dropping to as low as 67p in some areas. However, motorists in outlying area, including the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, are paying much more already. Arab countries in OPEC (Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries) meet today in Cairo and their supply cuts are expected to be followed by non-members such as Russia, Norway, Mexico, Angola and Oman. Mr Holloway added: 'Much depends on whether the countries can keep to their agreement to restrict supply and push up the cost of oil. 'If someone breaks ranks, then the price will fall again. 'The effect of the recession, the after- shock of the World Trade Centre attack and the war in Afghanistan have made the markets very jittery.' Garry Russell, co-ordinator of the Dump the Pump campaign which helped to spark last year's petrol protests, warned that prices could rise to 80p per litre in the next six months.Lenox Holiday Melamine Accent Plates (Set of 4) He said: 'It's in the major oil producing countries' interest to restrict the flow of their product and I'm sure prices will go back up again.' A spokesman for Safeway said: 'If there is a sustained increase, they may be a need for us to increase our prices.' Sainsbury's added it will try to keep prices 'as low as possible as long as possible' but OPEC's move may have an effect. At the height of the petrol price protests, unleaded was more than 80p a litre, or £3.64 a gallon, with 80p in every pound going to the Treasury.
Below are some ideas for the following IELTS writing task 2 essay question. Increasing the price of petrol is the best way to solve growing traffic and pollution IR-60M Outdoor Infrared-Illuminator LED Strahler NEUproblems. if the price is increased, less people will be able to afford it if less people can afford petrol, less people will drive cars. The price of oil intends to spark the chaos in the world economy. In recent history, the spark came from, “the Arab oil embargo of 1973, the Iranian revolution in 1978-1979 and Saddam Hussein's invasion of Kuwait in 1990...” (Economist). “The Middle East and North Africa produce more than one-third of the world's oil.” (Economist). The situation in Libya are worsening which causes the oil output of Libya to halves. Unrest across the region are spreading, threatening a wider disruption. The price of Brent Lenox Lace Couture Sugar Bowlcrude has jumped 15%, reaching $120 a barrel on February 24th. Supply disruptions causes oil price to increase and could increase inflation. The lasting effects may bring It was expected for oil firms to discuss of what will happen in the future,Juego de 6 Staub Cerámica Cuenco bol frutero Rendondo yellow mostaza 14cm likely a shortage in oil supplies means increases in price. The graph : The oil firms have lost some of their supplies. This forces them to raise their oil prices as shown on the graph. The shift from Supply1 to Supply2 represents the increase in prices after shortages in supply. The Law of Demand is a negative relationship between price and supply. If the prices goes up, the supply will go down and vice versa. Shifts in demand can affect consumers' tastes, preferences, income, and price of substitutes. The hike in prices can leave a bad taste in consumers and affect their preferences to shift to substitutes. However, because substitutes are very limited over oil, the switch to substitutesKela Cailin Edelstahl Bratpfanne 24 cm Antihaft (X6-R21)proves to be difficult. In the short run, majority of consumers, if not all, intends to stay on course despite the price hike. In the long run, consumers will begin to find substitutes. The oil firms already aware that they are unable to operate their maximum efficiency with the Libya issue. As shown on the graph, before the Libya crisis, the oil firms were running on max efficiency which is PPC1.
Increasing the price of petrol is the best way to solveKuchenplatte D 28 cm pinknthal Romanze Kobaltpinktte growing traffic and. structure would help the overall flow of your essay Avoid run-ons! Johannesburg - Consumers should brace themselves for yet another steep petrol price hike at the end of May, according to the Automobile Association (AA) which warned on Tuesday that the petrol price could rise by 74 cents a litre, with diesel going up by 81c/l and paraffin byLenox Navy Dots 4-Piece Crystal Assorted Glassware Set 78c/l. This projected fuel price increase follows two successive hikes in April and May, against the backdrop of a raised government fuel levy, a weaker rand and a strengthening international Brent crude oil price. Mokwena said people who are able to purchase vehicles with low carbon footprints will be cushioned significantly, compared to those who commute and are stuck daily in congested traffic without stop-start technology in less efficient cars. Stop-start technology is usually found in modern, upper-end cars which use a computer to sense when the car is stationary to shut down the engine, reducing fuel consumption and emissions. Consumer LE CADEAUX - MELAMINE Cheese & Fruit Cutting Boardgoods Mokwena believes that another fuel price increase will push freight costs up, which will likely be passed on to the consumer.“Consumers may well feel the cumulative impact of the additional transport costs along the supply chain that produces most goods.” However, he added that the effect will not be immediate. As South Africa does not have a single transport economic regulator, individual public transport operators set their own prices. Mokwena said bus companies will be the most exposed to yet another fuel price hike, as they face increased labour costs after a negotiated settlement followingLenox Opal Innocence Scroll Saucer. Huge Savinga nearly four-week strike in the sector. Another factor affecting public transport costs is the possibility of increased numbers of people opting to walk or cycle due to rising prices. This could lead to lower volumes of people on buses, in turn raising ticket fees. Mokwena added that this period should be used by the transport market to expand its energy sources. There is also potential for independent power producers to introduce electric buses and vehicles. According to Statistics South Africa’s General Household Survey 2016, 84.2% of the population is connected to electricity while 76.8% use it for cooking. The AA expects the cost of paraffin - a zero-rated VAT item - to rise by 78c/l at the end of May and is concerned about the impact of the hike.Lenox Butterfly Meadow 4pc Place Setting Dinnerware Set -NEW-“Worryingly, people who use illuminating paraffin for lighting, heating and cooking will suffer a further blow as the country heads into winter.”The Department of Energy usually announces the official change to the fuel price in the last week of the month.